Harvard Referencing Rules (Standard for Western Academia)

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Psy
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Postby Psy » Thu May 19, 2016 6:05 pm

It's not much but it makes writing any piece where facts and statistics are used at the forefront. (So not opinion pieces)

There are subtle variations between sources, from authored texts to online pieces but at it's core the referencing is the same. With it predominantly structured (Surname, First Initial. Year).

i.e. (Ps, Y. 2016)

Then at the end of the text using references there is a more detailed description going Surname, First Initial. (Year). Book, Country / Region of Writing: Publisher

i.e. Ps, Y. (2016) How to reference for an argument like you're an academic. UK: Random House

Whilst adding a publisher or region can be finicky outside of the direct academic world where each text has it already included in either the front or the back of the text it can be shortened yet be accepted as Surname, First Initial. (Year). Book, Location of sourcing.

This can come in handy to help both the writer and the reader attempt to reduce confirmation biases as often as possible and gather from ranges of sources whilst researching, if there are multiple sources by the same author, then citations are listed in order by the date of publication.

Here's a complete index of each official form of referencing for the reference list posting at the end of a piece. (For the main text the (Surname, First Initial. Year). format is wholly acceptable.

**************************************************
Handy links to make referencing easier.
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[url=Cite a Book in APA, Chicago, Harvard or MLA style]https://www.citethisforme.com/cite/book[/url]

[url=Cite an E-Book or PDF in APA, Chicago, Harvard or MLA style]https://www.citethisforme.com/cite/ebook[/url]
[url=Cite a Broadcast in APA, Chicago, Harvard or MLA style]https://www.citethisforme.com/cite/broadcast[/url]
[url=Cite Archive Material and Artwork in APA, Chicago, Harvard or MLA style]https://www.citethisforme.com/cite/archive-material[/url]

[spoiler=Harvard Reference List Overview]
Reference lists are created to allow readers to locate original sources themselves. Each citation in a reference list includes various pieces of information including the:

Name of the author(s)
Year published
Title
City published
Publisher
Pages used
Generally, Harvard Reference List citations follow this format:

Last name, First Initial. (Year published). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s).
Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name.
[/spoiler]

[spoiler=Citations for Books with One Author]
The structure for a Harvard Reference List citation for books with one author includes the following:

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. Edition. (Only include the edition if it is not the first edition) City published: Publisher, Page(s).
If the edition isn’t listed, it is safe to assume that it is the first addition, and does not need to be included in the citation.

Example: One author AND first edition:

Patterson, J. (2005). Maximum ride. New York: Little, Brown.
Example: One author AND NOT the first edition

Dahl, R. (2004). Charlie and the chocolate factory. 6th ed. New York: Knopf.
[/spoiler]

[spoiler=Citations for Books with Two or More Authors]
When creating a citation that has more than one author, place the names in the order in which they appear on the source. Use the word “and” to separate the names.

Last name, First initial. and Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s).
Example:

Desikan, S. and Ramesh, G. (2006). Software testing. Bangalore, India: Dorling Kindersley, p.156.
Vermaat, M., Sebok, S., Freund, S., Campbell, J. and Frydenberg, M. (2014). Discovering computers. Boston: Cengage Learning, pp.446-448.
Daniels, K., Patterson, G. and Dunston, Y. (2014). The ultimate student teaching guide. 2nd ed. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, pp.145-151.

* remember, when citing a book, only include the edition if it is NOT the first edition!
[/spoiler]

[spoiler=Harvard Reference List Citations for Multiple Works By The Same Author]
When there are multiple works by the same author, place the citations in order by year. When sources are published in the same year, place them in alphabetical order by the title.

Example:

Brown, D. (1998). Digital fortress. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Brown, D. (2003). Deception point. New York: Atria Books.
Brown, D. (2003). The Da Vinci code. New York: Doubleday.
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[spoiler=Harvard Reference List Citations for Journal Articles Found on a Database or on a Website]
When citing journal articles found on a database or through a website, include all of the components found in a citation of a print journal, but also include the medium ([online]), the website URL, and the date that the article was accessed.

Structure:

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article Title. Journal, [online] Volume(Issue), pages. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
Example:

Raina, S. (2015). Establishing Correlation Between Genetics and Nonresponse. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, [online] Volume 61(2), p. 148. Available at: http://www.proquest.com/products-services/ProQuest-Research-Library.html [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].
[/spoiler]

[spoiler=Citations for Print Newspaper Articles]
When citing a newspaper, use the following structure:

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Newspaper, Page(s).
Example:

Weisman, J. (2015). Deal Reached on Fast-Track Authority for Obama on Trade Accord. The New York Times, p.A1.
[/spoiler]

[spoiler=Citations for Newspaper Articles Found on a Database or a Website]
To cite a newspaper found either on a database or a website, use the following structure:

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Newspaper, [online] pages. Available at: url [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
Example:

Harris, E. (2015). For Special-Needs Students, Custom Furniture Out of Schoolhouse Scraps. New York Times, [online] p.A20. Available at: http://go.galegroup.com [Accessed 17 Apr. 2015].
[/spoiler]

[spoiler=Citations for Websites]
When citing a website, use the following structure:

Last name, First initial (Year published). Page title. [online] Website name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
When no author is listed, use the following structure:

Website name, (Year published). Page title. [online] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
Example:

Messer, L. (2015). 'Fancy Nancy' Optioned by Disney Junior. [online] ABC News. Available at: http://abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/fancy-nancy-optioned-disney-junior-2017/story?id=29942496#.VRWbWJwmbs0.twitter [Accessed 31 Mar. 2015].
Mms.com, (2015). M&M'S Official Website. [online] Available at: http://www.mms.com/ [Accessed 20 Apr. 2015].
[/spoiler]

[spoiler=Citations for eBooks and PDFs]
When citing eBooks and PDFs, include the edition, even if it’s the first edition, and follow it with the type of resource in brackets (either [ebook] or [pdf]). Include the url at the end of the citation with the date it was accessed in brackets.

Use the following structure:

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. Edition. [format] City: Publisher, page(s). Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
Zusack, M. (2015). The Book Thief. 1st ed. [ebook] New York: Knopf. Available at: http://ebooks.nypl.org/ [Accessed 20 Apr. 2015].
Robin, J. (2014). A handbook for professional learning: research, resources, and strategies for implementation. 1st ed. [pdf] New York: NYC Department of Education. Available at http://schools.nyc.gov/ [Accessed 14 Apr. 2015].
[/spoiler]

[spoiler=Citations for Blogs]
Blogs are regularly updated webpages that are generally run by an individual.

When citing a blog post, use the following format:

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Post title. [Blog] Blog name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
Example:

Cohen, M. (2013). Re-election Is Likely for McConnell, but Not Guaranteed. [Blog] FiveThirtyEight. Available at: http://fivethirtyeight.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/07/01/re-election-is-likely-for-mcconnell-but-not-guaranteed/ [Accessed 4 Apr. 2015].
[/spoiler]

[spoiler=Citations for Dissertations]
A dissertation is a lengthy paper or project, generally created as a requirement to obtain a doctoral degree.

Use the following structure to create a citation for a dissertation:

Last name, First initial. (Year published). Dissertation title. Academic Level of the Author. Name of University, College, or Institution.
Example:

Shaver, W. (2013). Effects of Remediation on High-Stakes Standardized Testing. PhD. Yeshiva University.
[/spoiler]

[spoiler=Citations for Online Images or Videos]
To cite an image or video found electronically, use the following structure:

Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author. (Year published). Title/description. [format] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
Examples:

Williams, A. (2013). DJ Gear. [image] Available at: https://flic.kr/p/fbPZyV [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].
7UP (2015). 7UP Team Up Tiesto. [video]. Available at: https://youtu.be/TMZqgEgy_Xg [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].
[/spoiler]

[spoiler=In-Text Citations]
In-Text Citations for One Author

The author’s last name and the year that the source was published are placed in the parentheses.

Example:
Gatsby’s infatuation with Daisy is often revealed in the story, often in simple phrases such as, “... he turned toward her with a rush of emotion” (Fitzgerald, 2004).
If the author’s name is already used in the body of the text, then students should exclude it from the in-text citation.

Example:
Fitzgerald’s use of “old sport” throughout the novel suggests that Gatsby considered Nick Carraway a close friend (2004).

In-Text Citations for Two or Three Authors

When a source has two authors, place both authors’ names in the order in which they appear on the source, with the word and separating them.

Examples:
“A range of values can express emotion, too. Stark, high-contrast drawings may carry a strong emotional charge” (Lazzari and Schleiser, 2011).
“Rather than constantly seeking approval from others, try to seek approval from the person who matters the most - yourself” (Bardes, Shelley and Schmidt, 2011).

In-Text Citations for Four or More Authors

Only use the first listed author’s name in the in-text citation, followed by “et al.” and the publishing year.

Example:
It can be said that “knowledge of the stages of growth and development helps predict the patient’s response to the present illness or the threat of future illness” (Potter et al., 2013).
Example:

Potter et al. (2013) go on to explain that “among the most Catholic Filipinos, parents keep the newborn inside the home until after the baptism to ensure the baby’s health and protection.”

In-Text Citations for Corporate Authors

Use the name of the organization in place of the author.

Example:
“Dr. Scharschmidt completed her residency in 2012, joined the Leaders Society in 2013, and became a new volunteer this year to encourage other young dermatologists in her area to join her in leadership giving” (Dermatology Foundation, 2014).
If the name of the organization is used in the text, place only the year in parentheses.

Example:
The Dermatology Foundation (2013) stated in their report that “industry also played an important role in the success of the highly rated annual DF Clinical Symposia—Advances in Dermatology.”

In-Text Citations for No Author

When an author’s name cannot be found, place the title of the text in the parentheses, followed by the publishing year.

Example:
Lisa wasn’t scared, she was simply shocked and caught off guard to notice her father in such a peculiar place (Lost Spaces, 2014).
In-Text Citations With No Date

When a date is not included in a source, simply omit that information from the in-text citation.

Example:
“Her hair was the color of lilac blossoms, while a peculiar color, it fit her quite well” (Montalvo)
[/spoiler]
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Postby NaranjaRa » Fri May 20, 2016 9:56 am

if i wrote academic papers, i'd be humping this thread right about now
:)
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Postby Skywalker » Sat Jun 18, 2016 2:59 am

Can I use Chicago.. I know that inside and out and I personally find it easier to use.

I do agree if you use something, cite it. Make it easier for others to follow your train of thought.
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Postby Psy » Sat Jun 18, 2016 5:38 am

Skywalker wrote:Can I use Chicago.. I know that inside and out and I personally find it easier to use.

I do agree if you use something, cite it. Make it easier for others to follow your train of thought.



Yeah if the structure of the reference makes sense in a quick glance, this threads mainly for anyone referencing who never had the experience of having it drilled into their heads at uni.
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Postby Corgimom » Sat Jun 18, 2016 7:05 am

The rules have evolved since I was in school
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Postby Psy » Sat Jun 18, 2016 10:38 am

Yup, they've added in 4 sections since I left uni in 2012
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Postby Orea » Sat Jun 18, 2016 11:52 am

Cheers. I have a few leftovers documents about that stuff somewhere around here, I'll add them when I get a chance. I ate that stuff for breakfast when I was writing my master thesis. Damn quotations were a freaking nightmare >.>
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Postby Corgimom » Sat Jun 18, 2016 2:10 pm

Psy wrote:Yup, they've added in 4 sections since I left uni in 2012


Not a word in there about keeping a sharp quill.
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Postby Candeeoke » Sat Jun 18, 2016 6:24 pm

I like MLA format. That's what I used all through school. It'seems easy to read. Seems pretty similar to this. They update this stuff like every other year...all to charge more money on books lol. I get sometimes they have to update for new types of sources but I still think they change it too much.
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Postby Psy » Sat Jun 18, 2016 7:15 pm

Candee wrote:I like MLA format. That's what I used all through school. It'seems easy to read. Seems pretty similar to this. They update this stuff like every other year...all to charge more money on books lol. I get sometimes they have to update for new types of sources but I still think they change it too much.


Thank fuck academic material is included in your student costs here :)
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Re: Harvard Referencing Rules (Standard for Western Academia)

Postby kilasin » Wed Sep 28, 2016 9:08 pm

You should also put the OSCOLA REFERENCING Regarding law school
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Re: Harvard Referencing Rules (Standard for Western Academia)

Postby Philly » Sun Oct 09, 2016 4:42 pm

I'm an idiot so this thread was helpful. But now I gotta look up Chicago & mla format
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Re: Harvard Referencing Rules (Standard for Western Academia)

Postby PhlawlessPhelon » Fri Feb 03, 2017 3:36 am

I use APA...or whatever the journal or book editor requests.

I find citation websites to be unreliable.

To me, APA PURDUE OWL is the best resource for learning, using, and understanding APA.
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Re: Harvard Referencing Rules (Standard for Western Academia)

Postby PhlawlessPhelon » Fri Feb 03, 2017 3:37 am

I use APA...or whatever the journal or book editor requests.

I find citation websites to be unreliable.

To me, APA PURDUE OWL is the best resource for learning, using, and understanding APA.
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Re: Harvard Referencing Rules (Standard for Western Academia)

Postby Skywalker » Sat May 27, 2017 9:29 pm

I'll say this... fuck APA going from writing for history to writing for education, I had to switch citation styles.

Fuck APA. I can't write anything correctly. I cite my references too often, I do not cite them enough, I cite them wrong. I forgot to put in an abstract on a two-page paper. Was that an opinion?? No need for those, only facts that other people have already found out without any of your input allowed!

I'm free on Monday, so I'll clean up the first post since it has not been corrected yet.
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