BLACK History - Fuck a Month

Have something you want to share? Are you an expert in your field? Want to educate your fellow ninjas? Here's the place.
User avatar
ink
God's Fountain Pen
Posts: 2159
Joined: Mon Mar 21, 2016 8:22 pm

Postby ink » Mon May 09, 2016 5:00 pm

NaranjaRa wrote:activist/comedian Dick Gregory is a bit of a hero of mine. he is constantly dropping wisdom, along with his gift of humor, and i always learn something new whenever i watch him speak. i especially loved his talk at 2008's State of the Black Union conference. check it out (in parts):

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JgSymvZLpOw

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QKjlmQl58Ic

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fMRw6N-ALT4

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2bnM2X9yGP4

word! so happy that they gave this man a platform.. sadly, this was a long time ago, there is still alot that needs done..


"God and Fear cannot not occupy the same space!" 100 right there
we are, what we allow to occupy us..





Image
User avatar
PhlawlessPhelon
phrankly phenomenal
Posts: 960
Joined: Fri Mar 18, 2016 3:20 am
Location: Krynn

Postby PhlawlessPhelon » Wed May 11, 2016 4:52 am

ink wrote:there is still alot that needs done


So true.
Image
-Master of all things pherret related
ImageImage
ImageImage
ImageImage
ImageImage
ImageImage
User avatar
Charmosa
God
Posts: 116
Joined: Wed Mar 30, 2016 1:40 am
Contact:

Postby Charmosa » Tue Jun 07, 2016 10:45 pm

Can we highlight Richard motherfuckin Pryor?

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Pryor

He is still rated the #1 comic of all time by comedy central. He's influenced so many comedians, black and white, to use humor as a means to speak about real problems. To speak about black problems. He was able to draw attention to a lot of racial injustice in his act while still remaining popular to a mostly white audience. He was that good. Let's look at how he got there.

Born in 1940 and raised in his grandmother's brothel where his mom was a prostitute, he was beaten, molested, and abandoned by age 10, out of school by 14. Served in the military but mostly spent it in military prison when he and other black soldiers beat the shit out of a another guy for being outwardly racist around them.

Dipped into comedy first Cosby-style, family friendly. He was still reasonably nervous to start, but other black artists had his back like Nina Simone.
On one of his first nights, he opened for singer and pianist Nina Simone at New York's Village Gate. Simone recalls Pryor's bout of performance anxiety:

"He shook like he had malaria, he was so nervous. I couldn't bear to watch him shiver, so I put my arms around him there in the dark and rocked him like a baby until he calmed down. The next night was the same, and the next, and I rocked him each time.[30]"


After some success, and feeling liberated by the Black Power movement, he started swearing, mostly known for his frequency in using "nigger" and "motherfucker". He was the first major comedian to do this and you still hear it in a lot of modern acts. Pryor actually stopped using "nigger" after he visited Africa in 1979. Here's an interview about that with Ebony magazine

https://keyamsha.com/2013/03/14/richard-pryor-there-are-no-niers-in-africa/

Basically he realized using the term was a way of conditioning your brain to think of people like that instead of thinking of them as people. And you know what? Some dumb motherfuckers thought he would tank without the n word, that the n word was the thing that got him where he was. Nah, man, he was still really fucking funny. His humor came from observation, tragedy, came from wit. Fuck the n word, fuck that shit.

 "There are no “niggers” in Africa, and there are no “niggers” here in America either. We Black people are not ”niggers,” and I will forever refuse to be one. I’m free of that, it’s out of my head. My mother is not a “nigger.” Is yours one? So if your mama ain’t no “nigger,” how could you be one?"


 He still had trouble getting equal treatment from studios even at the height of his fame. He co-wrote Blazing Saddles but the studio wouldn't let him play the lead. His tv show was canceled after four episodes because the network didn't like his subject matter and Pryor wouldn't change it. He had a kids puppet show that got canceled for no reason, it was actually really cute.

He had his own personal demons, too. A lot of problems with drinking, smoking, and doing drugs. Suffered 2 heart attacks and developed MS. Married 7 times to 5 women, and had 7 children between different girlfriends and wives starting with his first at age 17. And people wouldn't let that time he set himself on fire while freebasing drop. I like the way he handled it when he'd get asked about it all the time since then. "I tried to kill myself. Next question." He gave journalists what they wanted in a dismissive way so they weren't really satisfied, and while they're stunned he can take it back to whatever he's working on. Writing, acting, stand up, he was an animal rights activist as well.

The second heart attack killed him but his wife said he died with a smile on his face.

One of the reasons I like stand up comedy, and one of the reasons I think Pryor and his style are still popular, is that it's true. Comedy acts went from purely "jokey" to social criticism. Satirical essays, plays, and poems were often used as the medium to make a political statement heard, but prior to Pryor it wasn't seen in mainstream stand up. He paved the way for Eddie Murphy, Chris Rock, Dave Chappelle, and even George Carlin and Louis CK. Carlin had a picture of Pryor up behind him during the entire last performance he gave. By breaking through and being damn successful he gave more black comedians opportunities for their voices to be heard and inspired white comedians to call attention to the same issues. The more people we have calling out and pushing back on racism, the more mediums it permeates, it's going to leave no place safe for racists to be comfortable.
User avatar
Corgimom
3 hours later...
Posts: 1031
Joined: Fri Mar 18, 2016 1:23 am

Postby Corgimom » Tue Jun 07, 2016 11:41 pm

Well if we are doing comedy Moms Mabelie, still influencing comedians

https://youtu.be/_Av5MkVfdLY

https://youtu.be/sd2F8N_xf6Q
Image Image
Image
est 1953


Image
User avatar
ink
God's Fountain Pen
Posts: 2159
Joined: Mon Mar 21, 2016 8:22 pm

Postby ink » Wed Jun 08, 2016 12:37 am

Charmosa wrote:Can we highlight Richard motherfuckin Pryor?

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Pryor

He is still rated the #1 comic of all time by comedy central. He's influenced so many comedians, black and white, to use humor as a means to speak about real problems. To speak about black problems. He was able to draw attention to a lot of racial injustice in his act while still remaining popular to a mostly white audience. He was that good. Let's look at how he got there.

Born in 1940 and raised in his grandmother's brothel where his mom was a prostitute, he was beaten, molested, and abandoned by age 10, out of school by 14. Served in the military but mostly spent it in military prison when he and other black soldiers beat the shit out of a another guy for being outwardly racist around them.

Dipped into comedy first Cosby-style, family friendly. He was still reasonably nervous to start, but other black artists had his back like Nina Simone.
On one of his first nights, he opened for singer and pianist Nina Simone at New York's Village Gate. Simone recalls Pryor's bout of performance anxiety:

"He shook like he had malaria, he was so nervous. I couldn't bear to watch him shiver, so I put my arms around him there in the dark and rocked him like a baby until he calmed down. The next night was the same, and the next, and I rocked him each time.[30]"


After some success, and feeling liberated by the Black Power movement, he started swearing, mostly known for his frequency in using "nigger" and "motherfucker". He was the first major comedian to do this and you still hear it in a lot of modern acts. Pryor actually stopped using "nigger" after he visited Africa in 1979. Here's an interview about that with Ebony magazine

https://keyamsha.com/2013/03/14/richard-pryor-there-are-no-niers-in-africa/

Basically he realized using the term was a way of conditioning your brain to think of people like that instead of thinking of them as people. And you know what? Some dumb motherfuckers thought he would tank without the n word, that the n word was the thing that got him where he was. Nah, man, he was still really fucking funny. His humor came from observation, tragedy, came from wit. Fuck the n word, fuck that shit.

 "There are no “niggers” in Africa, and there are no “niggers” here in America either. We Black people are not ”niggers,” and I will forever refuse to be one. I’m free of that, it’s out of my head. My mother is not a “nigger.” Is yours one? So if your mama ain’t no “nigger,” how could you be one?"


 He still had trouble getting equal treatment from studios even at the height of his fame. He co-wrote Blazing Saddles but the studio wouldn't let him play the lead. His tv show was canceled after four episodes because the network didn't like his subject matter and Pryor wouldn't change it. He had a kids puppet show that got canceled for no reason, it was actually really cute.

He had his own personal demons, too. A lot of problems with drinking, smoking, and doing drugs. Suffered 2 heart attacks and developed MS. Married 7 times to 5 women, and had 7 children between different girlfriends and wives starting with his first at age 17. And people wouldn't let that time he set himself on fire while freebasing drop. I like the way he handled it when he'd get asked about it all the time since then. "I tried to kill myself. Next question." He gave journalists what they wanted in a dismissive way so they weren't really satisfied, and while they're stunned he can take it back to whatever he's working on. Writing, acting, stand up, he was an animal rights activist as well.

The second heart attack killed him but his wife said he died with a smile on his face.

One of the reasons I like stand up comedy, and one of the reasons I think Pryor and his style are still popular, is that it's true. Comedy acts went from purely "jokey" to social criticism. Satirical essays, plays, and poems were often used as the medium to make a political statement heard, but prior to Pryor it wasn't seen in mainstream stand up. He paved the way for Eddie Murphy, Chris Rock, Dave Chappelle, and even George Carlin and Louis CK. Carlin had a picture of Pryor up behind him during the entire last performance he gave. By breaking through and being damn successful he gave more black comedians opportunities for their voices to be heard and inspired white comedians to call attention to the same issues. The more people we have calling out and pushing back on racism, the more mediums it permeates, it's going to leave no place safe for racists to be comfortable.

^^ this.. :)
we are, what we allow to occupy us..





Image
User avatar
PhlawlessPhelon
phrankly phenomenal
Posts: 960
Joined: Fri Mar 18, 2016 3:20 am
Location: Krynn

Postby PhlawlessPhelon » Sat Jun 11, 2016 6:34 am

Richard Pryor is a great addition to this thread. Good post.
Image
-Master of all things pherret related
ImageImage
ImageImage
ImageImage
ImageImage
ImageImage
User avatar
ink
God's Fountain Pen
Posts: 2159
Joined: Mon Mar 21, 2016 8:22 pm

Postby ink » Sat Jun 11, 2016 9:13 pm

ImageImage


Maya Angelou
Author, Civil Rights Activist, Poet
April 4, 1928 ~ May 28, 2014
Education-
George Washington High School, California Labor School
place of birth-
St. Louis, Missouri
AKA
Marguerite Johnson
Marguerite Ann Johnson
NICKNAME
Maya
FULL NAME
Marguerite Annie Johnson


Image

Synopsis

Born on April 4, 1928, in St. Louis, Missouri, writer and civil rights activist Maya Angelou is known for her 1969 memoir, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, which made literary history as the first nonfiction best-seller by an African-American woman. In 1971, Angelou published the Pulitzer Prize-nominated poetry collection Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water 'Fore I Die. She later wrote the poem "On the Pulse of Morning"—one of her most famous works—which she recited at President Bill Clinton's inauguration in 1993. Angelou received several honors throughout her career, including two NAACP Image Awards in the outstanding literary work (nonfiction) category, in 2005 and 2009. She died on May 28, 2014.


Image




Early Years

Multi-talented barely seems to cover the depth and breadth of Maya Angelou's accomplishments. She was an author, actress, screenwriter, dancer and poet. Born Marguerite Annie Johnson, Angelou had a difficult childhood. Her parents split up when she was very young, and she and her older brother, Bailey, were sent to live with their father's mother, Anne Henderson, in Stamps, Arkansas.

As an African American, Angelou experienced firsthand racial prejudices and discrimination in Arkansas. She also suffered at the hands of a family associate around the age of 7: During a visit with her mother, Angelou was raped by her mother's boyfriend. Then, as vengeance for the sexual assault, Angelou's uncles killed the boyfriend. So traumatized by the experience, Angelou stopped talking. She returned to Arkansas and spent years as a virtual mute.

During World War II, Angelou moved to San Francisco, California, where she won a scholarship to study dance and acting at the California Labor School. Also during this time, Angelou became the first black female cable car conductor—a job she held only briefly, in San Francisco.

In 1944, a 16-year-old Angelou gave birth to a son, Guy (a short-lived high school relationship had led to the pregnancy), thereafter working a number of jobs to support herself and her child. In 1952, the future literary icon wed Anastasios Angelopulos, a Greek sailor from whom she took her professional name—a blend of her childhood nickname, "Maya," and a shortened version of his surname.

Career Beginnings

In the mid-1950s, Angelou's career as a performer began to take off. She landed a role in a touring production of Porgy and Bess, later appearing in the off-Broadway production Calypso Heat Wave (1957) and releasing her first album, Miss Calypso (1957). A member of the Harlem Writers Guild and a civil rights activist, Angelou organized and starred in the musical revue Cabaret for Freedom as a benefit for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, also serving as the SCLC's northern coordinator.

In 1961, Angelou appeared in an off-Broadway production of Jean Genet's The Blacks with James Earl Jones, Lou Gossett Jr. and Cicely Tyson. While the play earned strong reviews, Angelou moved on to other pursuits, spending much of the 1960s abroad; she first lived in Egypt and then in Ghana, working as an editor and a freelance writer. Angelou also held a position at the University of Ghana for a time.

After returning to the United States, Angelou was urged by friend and fellow writer James Baldwin to write about her life experiences. Her efforts resulted in the enormously successful 1969 memoir about her childhood and young adult years, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, which made literary history as the first nonfiction best-seller by an African-American woman. The poignant work also made Angelou an international star.

Since publishing Caged Bird, Angelou continued to break new ground—not just artistically, but educationally and socially. She wrote the drama Georgia, Georgia in 1972—becoming the first African-American woman to have her screenplay produced—and went on to earn a Tony Award nomination for her role in the play Look Away (1973) and an Emmy Award nomination for her work on the television miniseries Roots (1977), among other honors.

Later Successes

Angelou wrote several autobiographies throughout her career, including All God's Children Need Traveling Shoes (1986) and A Song Flung Up to Heaven (2002), but 1969's I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings continues to be regarded as her most popular autobiographical work. She also published several collections of poetry, including Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water 'Fore I Die (1971), which was nominated for the Pulitzer Prize.

One of Angelou's most famous works is the poem "On the Pulse of Morning," which she wrote especially for and recited at President Bill Clinton's inaugural ceremony in January 1993—marking the first inaugural recitation since 1961, when Robert Frost delivered his poem "The Gift Outright" at President John F. Kennedy's inauguration. Angelou went on to win a Grammy Award (best spoken word album) for the audio version of the poem.

In 1995, Angelou was lauded for remaining on The New York Times' paperback nonfiction best-seller list for two years—the longest-running record in the chart's history.

Seeking new creative challenges, Angelou made her directorial debut in 1998 with Down in the Delta, starring Alfre Woodard. She also wrote a number of inspirational works, from the essay collection Wouldn't Take Nothing for My Journey Now (1994) to her advice for young women in Letter to My Daughter (2008). Interested in health, Angelou has even published cookbooks, including Hallelujah! The Welcome Table: A Lifetime of Memories With Recipes (2005) and Great Food, All Day Long (2010).

Angelou's career has seen numerous accolades, including the Chicago International Film Festival's 1998 Audience Choice Award and a nod from the Acapulco Black Film Festival in 1999 for Down in the Delta; and two NAACP Image Awards in the outstanding literary work (nonfiction) category, for her 2005 cookbook and 2008's Letter to My Daughter.

Personal Life

Martin Luther King Jr., a close friend of Angelou's, was assassinated on her birthday (April 4) in 1968. Angelou stopped celebrating her birthday for years afterward, and sent flowers to King's widow, Coretta Scott King, for more than 30 years, until Coretta's death in 2006.



Image

Angelou was good friends with TV personality Oprah Winfrey, who organized several birthday celebrations for the award-winning author, including a week-long cruise for her 70th birthday in 1998.

After experiencing health issues for a number of years, Maya Angelou died on May 28, 2014, at her home in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. The news of her passing spread quickly with many people taking to social media to mourn and remember Angelou. Singer Mary J. Blige and politician Cory Booker were among those who tweeted their favorite quotes by her in tribute. President Barack Obama also issued a statement about Angelou, calling her "a brilliant writer, a fierce friend, and a truly phenomenal woman." Angelou "had the ability to remind us that we are all God's children; that we all have something to offer," he wrote.


http://www.biography.com/people/maya-angelou-9185388#personal-life


one of my favorite teaching moments... :)



we are, what we allow to occupy us..





Image
User avatar
PhlawlessPhelon
phrankly phenomenal
Posts: 960
Joined: Fri Mar 18, 2016 3:20 am
Location: Krynn

Postby PhlawlessPhelon » Sun Jun 12, 2016 6:16 am

Maya deserved a great post in this thread and you definitely provided it.

I never realized she was born in STL. Neat.
Image
-Master of all things pherret related
ImageImage
ImageImage
ImageImage
ImageImage
ImageImage
User avatar
Phara
The Glue To This Bitch!
Posts: 2006
Joined: Fri Mar 18, 2016 1:13 am

Postby Phara » Sun Jun 12, 2016 7:04 am

incredible and and a very "duh" addition to this thread. amazing job ink. i love that post. as well as the pryor post charmosa.
Image
ImageImage
ImageImage
ImageImage
Image

Image Image
User avatar
Skywalker
I Feel Ya Sista... Not in that way
Posts: 978
Joined: Mon Mar 21, 2016 4:55 pm
Location: NC

Postby Skywalker » Wed Jun 15, 2016 7:46 pm

What Happened to the Civil Rights Movement After 1965? Don’t Ask Your Textbook

June 14, 2016

By Adam Sanchez

Here is a link to the article. I tried to recreate it below.. I gave up..

http://zinnedproject.org/2016/06/civil-rights-movement-after-1965-not-in-textbooks/

Fifty years ago this week, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee chairperson Stokely Carmichael made the famous call for “Black Power.” Carmichael’s speech came in the midst of the “March Against Fear,” a walk from Memphis, Tennessee, to Jackson, Mississippi, to encourage African Americans to use their newly won right to vote. But while almost every middle and high school student learns about the Civil Rights Movement, they rarely learn about this march—or the related struggles that continued long after the Voting Rights Act.

Most U.S. History textbooks teach a narrative that the Civil Rights Movement began with the Supreme Court Brown v. Board decision in 1954 and abruptly ended in 1965 with the passage of federal legislation. Not only does this narrative tell students that politicians and judges are more important than activists and organizers, it reinforces the myth that structural racism is a relic of the past and the United States is on an unstoppable path of progress. As Black Lives Matter activists once again take up the fight against racial inequity and police brutality, excavating the long, grassroots history for students is crucial if we hope to use the past to inform our struggles today.

What Was the Civil Rights Movement?

With my high school students, I begin teaching the Civil Rights Movement by asking them to name the people and organizations that were involved.

“Martin Luther King!”

“Rosa Parks!”

Students shout out names like Emmett Till, Malcolm X, the Little Rock Nine.

I divide the whiteboard in half: Any person or group famous for events or actions before the Voting Rights Act of 1965, I write on the right side of the board; those famous for events or actions after the Voting Rights Act, I write on the left side of the board. Without fail, the right side of the board is always full and the left side of the board nearly bare.

Image
Fannie Lou Hamer singing during the 1966 “March Against Fear.”


After explaining to students what I had done, I direct their attention to a Civil Rights Timeline poster. We read aloud the first and last entries: “May 17, 1954, Supreme Court outlaws school segregation in Brown v. Board of Education” and “July 9, 1965, Congress Passes the Voting Rights Act.”

I ask: “Why don’t we ever learn about the Civil Rights Movement after 1965?” I don’t expect them to answer this right then, but I tell students that as we learn about the Civil Rights Movement—both before and after 1965—I want them to consider this question.

What the Textbooks Teach

It’s no accident my students learn a narrative that stops in 1965. Most history textbooks end their chapter on the Civil Rights Movement with a short one- or two-page section on “Black Power” that covers Malcolm X and a few post-1965 events. One example is Houghton Mifflin Harcourt’s United States History. The section titled “Urban Violence Erupts” reads:

. . . five days after President Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act into law, one of the worst race riots in the nation’s history raged through the streets of Watts, a predominantly African American neighborhood in Los Angeles. Thirty-four people were killed, and hundreds of millions of dollars worth of property was destroyed. The next year, 1966, saw even more racial disturbances, and in 1967 alone, riots and violent clashes took place in more than 100 cities.

Image
Two months after the Watts uprising, activists and artists opened the Watts Happening Coffee House.


What is startling about this passage is the omission of the causes of these urban rebellions—from police violence to the assassination of MLK. The violence in Watts, and the riots that followed, didn’t materialize out of thin air. Watts was a neighborhood where residents had long protested poor housing and sanitation, underfunded and segregated schools, and a heavy police presence. Although sparked by an incident of police brutality, the conditions that led to the Watts uprising—like the conditions that have led to today’s Black Lives Matter protests—started long before protestors hit the streets. As Joshua Bloom and Waldo E. Martin Jr. explain in Blacks Against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party:

Between January 1962 and July 1965, Los Angeles law enforcement officers killed at least 65 people. . . . These included 27 cases in which the victim was shot in the back by law-officers, 25 in which the victim was unarmed, 23 in which the victim was suspected of a nonviolent crime and four in which the victim was not suspected of any crime at the time of the shooting.

Much of the violence during the riot targeted police cars. And in the aftermath, activists in Watts organized Community Alert Patrols to observe how police treated residents. Yet the textbooks ignore this context to deliver a message: the urban rebellions were the end of the Civil Rights Movement worth studying.

Textbooks reinforce the Voting Rights Act-as-the-end-of-the-movement narrative when they draw a line between the Civil Rights Movement and the call for Black Power. One example is Teachers Curriculum Institute’s widely used History Alive! The United States. One page after extolling the virtues of the Voting Rights Act, the authors write in their “Black Power” section:

By the time King died, many African Americans had lost faith in his vision of a society in which the color of a person’s skin didn’t matter. Angry young African Americans looked instead to new leaders who talked about black pride and black power.

Missing from this passage is the angry young King, who reminded us after 1965 that his dream had “turned into a nightmare,” who attacked segregation in the North, who opposed the Vietnam War, who advocated for a massive redistribution of wealth, who called for Black pride, and who worked closely with Black Power proponents.

Image
Candidates from the Lowndes County Freedom Organization nominated for the 1966 ballot.


Also missing is the roots of Black Power in the Civil Rights Movement. In 1965, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) began organizing theLowndes County Freedom Organization (LCFO)—which became known by its symbol, the Black Panther—as an attempt to build an independent political party to challenge Alabama’s ruling Democratic Party. Though LCFO candidates did not win, SNCC registered 2,000 Black voters during the campaign. Lowndes County field organizer Stokely Carmichael was soon elected chairperson of SNCC and became the leading proponent of Black Power.

The passage from History Alive! continues: “Black Power groups formed that embraced militant strategies and the use of violence. Organizations such as the Black Panthers rejected all things white and talked of building a separate black nation.” This is the only mention of the Black Panthers in a 500-plus-page textbook. This passage is a gross mischaracterization of the Panthers’ ideology and it erases their efforts to build multiracial coalitions. The broader curricular crime is that History Alive! teaches students to accept the turn to Black Power as the end of the successful Civil Rights Movement, and therefore not worth spending class time exploring. This narrative prevents us not only from learning the lessons of the organizations and activists that continued the struggle against racism after the Voting Rights Act, but also from drawing out the relevance of the pre-1965 freedom struggle that dealt with much more than the fight for voting rights.

Teaching “The Long Civil Rights Movement”

Far from being the end of the Civil Rights Movement, 1965 marked a legislative milestone and provided activists with another tool. But the new legislation was not a solution to the problems people had been organizing against for many years. In the North and the South, activists continued to confront poverty, unemployment, lack of health care, poor housing, inadequate education, and police and sheriff brutality.

Image
The National Welfare Rights Organization marching at the 1968 Poor People’s Campaign.


U.S. history textbooks fail to look deeply at the urban rebellions, Martin Luther King’s campaigns against war and poverty, the Lowndes County Freedom Organization, and the rise of the Black Panther Party. And there are countless other post-1965 events that should be brought into the classroom: the Memphis Sanitation workers’ strike and the subsequent workers’ struggles of the 1970s, the Orangeburg Massacre, the fight for Ethnic Studies programs, the national campaign for welfare rights, the Attica Prison Uprising, the battle over segregated schools in Boston and community control in New York, the fight in the South to ensure the Voting Rights Act was put into practice, and many more.

The shallow understanding of the Civil Rights Movement that my students brought to class goes beyond not knowing post-1965 events. As historian Jeanne Theoharis has noted, before the Watts Rebellion there was more than two decades of nonviolent activism against legalized segregation in Los Angeles. And in 1963, after what is widely taught as a successful nonviolent struggle to desegregate downtown Birmingham, Alabama, 2,000 African Americans, fed up after segregationists bombed hotels that housed movement leaders, turned to violence. They threw rocks and bricks, looted stores, and set fire to a nearby grocery. Despite the fact that this precipitated Kennedy’s endorsement of the Civil Rights Act, this violence is often left out of the story of Birmingham, just as nonviolent activism is left out of the story of Watts.

Image

What this example reveals and what a growing work of scholarship argues, is that we have been sold a narrative of the movement that ignores enormous parts of Civil Rights history. By mythologizing a successful, exclusively nonviolent struggle against racial segregation in the South that becomes a polarizing call for Black Power as it moves North after 1965, we leave out struggles across the country that don’t fit this stereotype.

We should replace this limited narrative, these scholars argue, with one of “The Long Civil Rights Movement,” a national Black freedom struggle rooted in struggles of the 1930s and extended through the 1970s, that used self-defense and nonviolent direct action, that dealt with issues of race andclass, that developed international solidarity, and participated in countless local struggles in the North and South.

In classrooms across the country, guided by the official textbooks and curricula, students learn a version of the Civil Rights Movement that leaves its lessons in the past. School districts across the country should provide time for teachers to produce a people’s curriculum of the movement in order to teach the local histories that are left out of the official narrative. This way our students who we hope will join and shape today’s social movements can do so with knowledge and insight about what came before.
Image
User avatar
Phara
The Glue To This Bitch!
Posts: 2006
Joined: Fri Mar 18, 2016 1:13 am

Postby Phara » Wed Jun 15, 2016 8:50 pm

Amazing!!!!

Don't ask your textbooks. I love it.
Image
ImageImage
ImageImage
ImageImage
Image

Image Image
User avatar
ink
God's Fountain Pen
Posts: 2159
Joined: Mon Mar 21, 2016 8:22 pm

Postby ink » Thu Jun 16, 2016 2:22 am

Skywalker wrote:What Happened to the Civil Rights Movement After 1965? Don’t Ask Your Textbook

June 14, 2016

By Adam Sanchez

Here is a link to the article. I tried to recreate it below.. I gave up..

http://zinnedproject.org/2016/06/civil-rights-movement-after-1965-not-in-textbooks/



Fifty years ago this week, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee chairperson Stokely Carmichael made the famous call for “Black Power.” Carmichael’s speech came in the midst of the “March Against Fear,” a walk from Memphis, Tennessee, to Jackson, Mississippi, to encourage African Americans to use their newly won right to vote. But while almost every middle and high school student learns about the Civil Rights Movement, they rarely learn about this march—or the related struggles that continued long after the Voting Rights Act.

Most U.S. History textbooks teach a narrative that the Civil Rights Movement began with the Supreme Court Brown v. Board decision in 1954 and abruptly ended in 1965 with the passage of federal legislation. Not only does this narrative tell students that politicians and judges are more important than activists and organizers, it reinforces the myth that structural racism is a relic of the past and the United States is on an unstoppable path of progress. As Black Lives Matteractivists once again take up the fight against racial inequity and police brutality, excavating the long, grassroots history for students is crucial if we hope to use the past to inform our struggles today.

What Was the Civil Rights Movement?

With my high school students, I begin teaching the Civil Rights Movement by asking them to name the people and organizations that were involved.

“Martin Luther King!”

“Rosa Parks!”

Students shout out names like Emmett Till, Malcolm X, the Little Rock Nine.

I divide the whiteboard in half: Any person or group famous for events or actions before the Voting Rights Act of 1965, I write on the right side of the board; those famous for events or actions after the Voting Rights Act, I write on the left side of the board. Without fail, the right side of the board is always full and the left side of the board nearly bare.

http://zinnedproject.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/marchagstfear_hamer_Q20975-335x223.jpg
Fannie Lou Hamer singing during the 1966 “March Against Fear.”


After explaining to students what I had done, I direct their attention to a Civil Rights Timeline poster. We read aloud the first and last entries: “May 17, 1954, Supreme Court outlaws school segregation in Brown v. Board of Education” and “July 9, 1965, Congress Passes the Voting Rights Act.”

I ask: “Why don’t we ever learn about the Civil Rights Movement after 1965?” I don’t expect them to answer this right then, but I tell students that as we learn about the Civil Rights Movement—both before and after 1965—I want them to consider this question.

What the Textbooks Teach

It’s no accident my students learn a narrative that stops in 1965. Most history textbooks end their chapter on the Civil Rights Movement with a short one- or two-page section on “Black Power” that covers Malcolm X and a few post-1965 events. One example is Houghton Mifflin Harcourt’s United States History. The section titled “Urban Violence Erupts” reads:

. . . five days after President Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act into law, one of the worst race riots in the nation’s history raged through the streets of Watts, a predominantly African American neighborhood in Los Angeles. Thirty-four people were killed, and hundreds of millions of dollars worth of property was destroyed. The next year, 1966, saw even more racial disturbances, and in 1967 alone, riots and violent clashes took place in more than 100 cities.

http://zinnedproject.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/watts_coffee_house.jpg
Two months after the Watts uprising, activists and artists opened the Watts Happening Coffee House.


What is startling about this passage is the omission of the causes of these urban rebellions—from police violence to the assassination of MLK. The violence in Watts, and the riots that followed, didn’t materialize out of thin air. Watts was a neighborhood where residents had long protested poor housing and sanitation, underfunded and segregated schools, and a heavy police presence. Although sparked by an incident of police brutality, the conditions that led to the Watts uprising—like the conditions that have led to today’s Black Lives Matter protests—started long before protestors hit the streets. As Joshua Bloom and Waldo E. Martin Jr. explain in Blacks Against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party:

Between January 1962 and July 1965, Los Angeles law enforcement officers killed at least 65 people. . . . These included 27 cases in which the victim was shot in the back by law-officers, 25 in which the victim was unarmed, 23 in which the victim was suspected of a nonviolent crime and four in which the victim was not suspected of any crime at the time of the shooting.

Much of the violence during the riot targeted police cars. And in the aftermath, activists in Watts organized Community Alert Patrols to observe how police treated residents. Yet the textbooks ignore this context to deliver a message: the urban rebellions were the end of the Civil Rights Movement worth studying.

Textbooks reinforce the Voting Rights Act-as-the-end-of-the-movement narrative when they draw a line between the Civil Rights Movement and the call for Black Power. One example is Teachers Curriculum Institute’s widely used History Alive! The United States. One page after extolling the virtues of the Voting Rights Act, the authors write in their “Black Power” section:

By the time King died, many African Americans had lost faith in his vision of a society in which the color of a person’s skin didn’t matter. Angry young African Americans looked instead to new leaders who talked about black pride and black power.

Missing from this passage is the angry young King, who reminded us after 1965 that his dream had “turned into a nightmare,” who attacked segregation in the North, who opposed the Vietnam War, who advocated for a massive redistribution of wealth, who called for Black pride, and who worked closely with Black Power proponents.

http://zinnedproject.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Candidates-325x300.jpg
Candidates from the Lowndes County Freedom Organization nominated for the 1966 ballot.


Also missing is the roots of Black Power in the Civil Rights Movement. In 1965, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) began organizing theLowndes County Freedom Organization (LCFO)—which became known by its symbol, the Black Panther—as an attempt to build an independent political party to challenge Alabama’s ruling Democratic Party. Though LCFO candidates did not win, SNCC registered 2,000 Black voters during the campaign. Lowndes County field organizer Stokely Carmichael was soon elected chairperson of SNCC and became the leading proponent of Black Power.

The passage from History Alive! continues: “Black Power groups formed that embraced militant strategies and the use of violence. Organizations such as the Black Panthers rejected all things white and talked of building a separate black nation.” This is the only mention of the Black Panthers in a 500-plus-page textbook. This passage is a gross mischaracterization of the Panthers’ ideology and it erases their efforts to build multiracial coalitions. The broader curricular crime is that History Alive! teaches students to accept the turn to Black Power as the end of the successful Civil Rights Movement, and therefore not worth spending class time exploring. This narrative prevents us not only from learning the lessons of the organizations and activists that continued the struggle against racism after the Voting Rights Act, but also from drawing out the relevance of the pre-1965 freedom struggle that dealt with much more than the fight for voting rights.

Teaching “The Long Civil Rights Movement”

Far from being the end of the Civil Rights Movement, 1965 marked a legislative milestone and provided activists with another tool. But the new legislation was not a solution to the problems people had been organizing against for many years. In the North and the South, activists continued to confront poverty, unemployment, lack of health care, poor housing, inadequate education, and police and sheriff brutality.

http://zinnedproject.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/welfare-rights-organization_march-650x510.jpg
The National Welfare Rights Organization marching at the 1968 Poor People’s Campaign.


U.S. history textbooks fail to look deeply at the urban rebellions, Martin Luther King’s campaigns against war and poverty, the Lowndes County Freedom Organization, and the rise of the Black Panther Party. And there are countless other post-1965 events that should be brought into the classroom: the Memphis Sanitation workers’ strike and the subsequent workers’ struggles of the 1970s, the Orangeburg Massacre, the fight for Ethnic Studies programs, the national campaign for welfare rights, the Attica Prison Uprising, the battle over segregated schools in Boston and community control in New York, the fight in the South to ensure the Voting Rights Act was put into practice, and many more.

The shallow understanding of the Civil Rights Movement that my students brought to class goes beyond not knowing post-1965 events. As historian Jeanne Theoharis has noted, before the Watts Rebellion there was more than two decades of nonviolent activism against legalized segregation in Los Angeles. And in 1963, after what is widely taught as a successful nonviolent struggle to desegregate downtown Birmingham, Alabama, 2,000 African Americans, fed up after segregationists bombed hotels that housed movement leaders, turned to violence. They threw rocks and bricks, looted stores, and set fire to a nearby grocery. Despite the fact that this precipitated Kennedy’s endorsement of the Civil Rights Act, this violence is often left out of the story of Birmingham, just as nonviolent activism is left out of the story of Watts.

http://zinnedproject.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/they_fought_then.jpgWhat this example reveals and what a growing work of scholarship argues, is that we have been sold a narrative of the movement that ignores enormous parts of Civil Rights history. By mythologizing a successful, exclusively nonviolent struggle against racial segregation in the South that becomes a polarizing call for Black Power as it moves North after 1965, we leave out struggles across the country that don’t fit this stereotype.

We should replace this limited narrative, these scholars argue, with one of “The Long Civil Rights Movement,” a national Black freedom struggle rooted in struggles of the 1930s and extended through the 1970s, that used self-defense and nonviolent direct action, that dealt with issues of race andclass, that developed international solidarity, and participated in countless local struggles in the North and South.

In classrooms across the country, guided by the official textbooks and curricula, students learn a version of the Civil Rights Movement that leaves its lessons in the past. School districts across the country should provide time for teachers to produce a people’s curriculum of the movement in order to teach the local histories that are left out of the official narrative. This way our students who we hope will join and shape today’s social movements can do so with knowledge and insight about what came before.




oh snap! fantastic.. unspoilering tho
we are, what we allow to occupy us..





Image
User avatar
PhlawlessPhelon
phrankly phenomenal
Posts: 960
Joined: Fri Mar 18, 2016 3:20 am
Location: Krynn

Re: BLACK History - Fuck a Month

Postby PhlawlessPhelon » Mon Jul 04, 2016 6:07 am

Carol Moseley Braun

Image

Born August 16, 1947
Chicago, Illinois

She majored in political science at the University of Illinois at Chicago, graduating in 1969.
She earned a Juris Doctor degree from the University of Chicago Law School in 1972.

Moseley Braun was a prosecutor in the United States Attorney's office in Chicago from 1973 to 1977. As an Assistant United States Attorney, she worked primarily in the civil and appellate law areas. Her work in housing, health policy, and environmental law won her the Attorney General's Special Achievement Award.

Carol Moseley Braun was the first, and to date, only female African-American Senator, the first African-American U.S. Senator for the Democratic Party, the first woman to defeat an incumbent U.S. Senator in an election, and the first and to date only female Senator from Illinois.

Elected positions held:
Illinois House of Representatives, 1979-1988
Recorder of Deeds of Cook County, 1988-1992
Illinois U.S. Senate, 1993-1999

She also ran (but lost) for president of the United States in the 2004 Democratic Presidential Primary and for Mayor of Chicago in 2011.
Image
-Master of all things pherret related
ImageImage
ImageImage
ImageImage
ImageImage
ImageImage
User avatar
Corgimom
3 hours later...
Posts: 1031
Joined: Fri Mar 18, 2016 1:23 am

Re: BLACK History - Fuck a Month

Postby Corgimom » Fri Jul 08, 2016 3:09 pm

And tragicomedies like yesterday.
Image Image
Image
est 1953


Image
User avatar
ink
God's Fountain Pen
Posts: 2159
Joined: Mon Mar 21, 2016 8:22 pm

Re: BLACK History - Fuck a Month

Postby ink » Wed Jul 13, 2016 12:59 pm

iconoclasts part 2 of 4 gave me peace this morning...


by the 8m15s mark
we are, what we allow to occupy us..





Image
User avatar
Charmosa
God
Posts: 116
Joined: Wed Mar 30, 2016 1:40 am
Contact:

Re: BLACK History - Fuck a Month

Postby Charmosa » Sun Jul 17, 2016 6:22 pm

Thank you for including textbook examples, Skywalker. It confirms my memory of school curriculum exactly. I think if k-12 education was forced to include accurate black/civil rights history it'd be similar to evolution in push back and application. Meaning, a lot of schools and teachers would still want to teach their version of history just like "science" teachers did with creationism. But obviously, waiting til college to teach this has not been working. People have already formed worldviews plus a lot don't go to college or take those classes. Get them educated while their brains are still malleable!
User avatar
PhlawlessPhelon
phrankly phenomenal
Posts: 960
Joined: Fri Mar 18, 2016 3:20 am
Location: Krynn

Re: BLACK History - Fuck a Month

Postby PhlawlessPhelon » Mon Jul 18, 2016 11:50 pm

Charmosa wrote:Get them educated while their brains are still malleable!


Well said
Image
-Master of all things pherret related
ImageImage
ImageImage
ImageImage
ImageImage
ImageImage
User avatar
ravenrussell
Keeper of Dark Mysteries..
Posts: 281
Joined: Mon Apr 25, 2016 5:16 am
Location: Walking the Road
Contact:

Re: BLACK History - Fuck a Month

Postby ravenrussell » Tue Jan 03, 2017 8:39 am

PhlawlessPhelon wrote:“To call yourself a New Yorker you must have been to Harlem at least once.” - Wallace Thurman in an article regarding Harlem's night life.

Image

Wallace Thurman - (1902-1934)

*Many of Harlem's most successful artists were given an outlet to display their talents by Wallace Thurman, and without Wallace Henry Thurman, Langston Hughes and other artists may not have reached their full potential.


/flame Image /flame

“Brother to Brother” is an independent film that relives the memories of Langston Hughes, Wallace Thurman, and other Harlem Renaissance artists.



Langston Hughes is one of my favorite poets. I will have to look this movie up and get it. Wallace Thurman sounded like an early ninja. He spoke truth to me along other great African American such as, Rita Dove and Maya Angelou. I have been needing a good Lit film.
Peace to all.
-Raven
Image
User avatar
NaranjaRa
Nerd lvl: SUPA DUPA
Posts: 2501
Joined: Fri Mar 18, 2016 1:53 am
Location: in the grove
Contact:

Re:

Postby NaranjaRa » Wed Jan 04, 2017 8:25 am

Skywalker wrote:...Most U.S. History textbooks teach a narrative that the Civil Rights Movement began with the Supreme Court Brown v. Board decision in 1954 and abruptly ended in 1965 with the passage of federal legislation. Not only does this narrative tell students that politicians and judges are more important than activists and organizers, it reinforces the myth that structural racism is a relic of the past and the United States is on an unstoppable path of progress.

...Yet the textbooks ignore this context to deliver a message: the urban rebellions were the end of the Civil Rights Movement worth studying.

...The broader curricular crime is that History Alive! teaches students to accept the turn to Black Power as the end of the successful Civil Rights Movement, and therefore not worth spending class time exploring. This narrative prevents us not only from learning the lessons of the organizations and activists that continued the struggle against racism after the Voting Rights Act, but also from drawing out the relevance of the pre-1965 freedom struggle that dealt with much more than the fight for voting rights.

...U.S. history textbooks fail to look deeply at the urban rebellions, Martin Luther King’s campaigns against war and poverty, the Lowndes County Freedom Organization, and the rise of the Black Panther Party.

....By mythologizing a successful, exclusively nonviolent struggle against racial segregation in the South that becomes a polarizing call for Black Power as it moves North after 1965, we leave out struggles across the country that don’t fit this stereotype.


the people who compose and control history textbooks for public school classrooms are aware of one of America's dirty secrets, and they don't want anyone else to know: the greatest movements for change that have happened in this country have been started by "radicals". the only way the nation has improved for All people, especially the most vulnerable citizens, is when those who think and live outside the norm stand up, take to the streets, and revolt.

of course they want to downplay these events as much as possible. why on earth would the powerful elite want folks to know that if they're not happy, they can actually make a difference if they organize, protest, and fight?!?

so they erase the most important lessons behind the history that might make people actually think; we already know the public education system works to dull critical-thought processes in the drive to churn out good little worker-bees. and as mentioned in that article, events surrounding civil action in regards to what led up to it and what the after-effects were are transformed into footnotes along the lines of, "This Day Happened...The End." these texts point out the violence but do not give it real context, especially when it involves poor and/or minority citizens in some type of uprising.

in fact, it almost serves a more sinister purpose when you think about it. by only highlighting seemingly divisive measures of certain groups without discussing their role as a positive force in their communities and for all people, and by only giving brief mention of violent outbursts during protests and riots, they immediately demonize the groups of people working for change. and when it comes to civil rights specifically, they're subtly reinforcing negative stereotypes, such as the idea that "black people are aggressive and violent."

that was an excellent share, Sky.

on another note, there's a documentary i saw recently that should be required viewing for all:
13th (named after the 13th Amendment which abolished slavery)
"An in-depth look at the prison system in the United States and how it reveals the nation's history of racial inequality."

it's an incredibly infuriating eye-opener. it's the history we really need to be taught...



you can find it on Netflix.
User avatar
ink
God's Fountain Pen
Posts: 2159
Joined: Mon Mar 21, 2016 8:22 pm

Re: BLACK History - Fuck a Month

Postby ink » Fri Jan 13, 2017 11:19 pm

oh yes.. the 13th documentary is so powerful, like in an uncomfortable truth kind of way. sort of like medicine.. it tastes terrible but so necessary to healing the tears leftover by white supremacy
we are, what we allow to occupy us..





Image
User avatar
PhlawlessPhelon
phrankly phenomenal
Posts: 960
Joined: Fri Mar 18, 2016 3:20 am
Location: Krynn

Re: BLACK History - Fuck a Month

Postby PhlawlessPhelon » Fri Feb 03, 2017 3:25 am

13th documentary was a really good watch.

They also recently added the producer's interview with Oprah to Netflix too.
Image
-Master of all things pherret related
ImageImage
ImageImage
ImageImage
ImageImage
ImageImage
User avatar
NaranjaRa
Nerd lvl: SUPA DUPA
Posts: 2501
Joined: Fri Mar 18, 2016 1:53 am
Location: in the grove
Contact:

Re: BLACK History - Fuck a Month

Postby NaranjaRa » Sat Feb 04, 2017 9:34 am

Dr. Rebecca Lee Crumpler

Image

Dr. Rebecca Lee Crumpler is widely considered by historians as the first African-American woman to become a physician in the states. While the fact has been disputed, Dr. Crumpler’s contributions to medicine and her will to challenge racial and sexist barriers has solidified her rightful place in history.

Crumpler was born February 8, 1831 in Christiana, Del. and raised primarily in Pennsylvania where her aunt cared for the sick. She moved to Charlestown, Mass. where she attended private school and married Wyatt Lee in 1852. Crumpler worked as a nurse during a time where adequate health care for poor African-Americans was rare.

Through hard work, Crumpler was accepted into the New England Female Medical College in 1860 ,which was unheard of at the time. The school made several exceptions for Crumpler, despite protests from members of the staff.

Crumpler’s husband passed in 1863 while she was still in school. Her studies stopped completely when the Civil War began. However, via a fund established by Ohio abolitionist Benjamin Wade, Crumpler re-entered school and completed her coursework in 1864. This made Crumpler the first African-American woman to earn a Doctor of Medicine degree and the only African-American to graduate from her medical school. That same year, she married Arthur Crumpler.

Crumpler established a practice in the Boston region, tending to poor African-American families, most especially women and children. She details much of her experiences as a physician in her 1883, A Book of Medical Discourses, one of the first such works by an African-American.

In the book, Crumpler describes being raised by an aunt who showed her kindness and compassion as her motivation to practice medicine for communities in need. She later moved to Richmond, Va. and worked with the Freedman’s Bureau before returning to her Beacon Hill home in Boston and establishing her practice for the poor there.

Crumpler passed on March 9, 1895. Her home is now part of the Boston Women’s Heritage Trail and the Rebecca Lee Society, established by Dr. Saundra Maass-Robinson and Dr. Patricia Whitley to honor Black women physicians in 1989.

Source: https://blackamericaweb.com/2017/01/25/ ... -crumpler/
User avatar
ink
God's Fountain Pen
Posts: 2159
Joined: Mon Mar 21, 2016 8:22 pm

Re: BLACK History - Fuck a Month

Postby ink » Mon Feb 06, 2017 3:19 am

excellent!
we are, what we allow to occupy us..





Image
User avatar
Skywalker
I Feel Ya Sista... Not in that way
Posts: 978
Joined: Mon Mar 21, 2016 4:55 pm
Location: NC

Re: BLACK History - Fuck a Month

Postby Skywalker » Mon Feb 13, 2017 3:29 pm

This is taken from the BlackPast.Org

The Southern Negro Youth Congress (SNYC) was formed in 1937 by young people who had attended the National Negro Congress (NNC) in Chicago, Illinois in 1936 and wanted to implement its call for action. These young leaders, including veteran activists James Jackson, Helen Gray, Esther Cooper, and Edward Strong, gathered in Richmond, Virginia in 1937 and formed the SNYC. They initially established their headquarters in Richmond before moving it to Birmingham, Alabama in 1939. SNYC had the support of prominent black adult leaders including Mary McCloud Bethune, Paul Robeson, Charlotte Hawkins Brown, A. Philip Randolph, and W.E.B. DuBois.
The first SNYC conference was held in Richmond, Virginia on February 13 and 14, 1937 at the Fifth Baptist Church. Five hundred thirty-four delegates from across the South attended the meeting including individuals from almost every historically black college as well as delegates representing YMCA branches and chapters of the Girl and Boy Scouts across the region. One international delegate, a young woman from China, also attended. Like its parent organization, the National Negro Congress, SNYC also included Communists among its members.

Officers were elected to one year terms while the adult advisory board raised funds and offered advice. The first successful SNYC campaign helped black tobacco workers organize a union in Richmond. Next it organized anti-lynching campaigns across the South.

Over the next twelve years SNYC formed chapters in ten southern states with a total membership of 11,000 at its peak. Over those years the organization encouraged southern blacks to join the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), helped register voters, and on one occasion visited the White House to enlist Eleanor Roosevelt’s support for their efforts. During World War II they testified before the Fair Employment Practices Committee describing employment discrimination in the South. SNYC members also sponsored the Caravan Puppeteers, a political puppet show, to explain how rural blacks could secure the right to vote. Their newsletter, Cavalcade, awarded prizes to college students for art and poetic interpretation of Howard Fast’s 1944 novel, Freedom Road.

The organization made extraordinary progress in making rural southern black people aware of their rights and in teaching strategies for protest. Their activities also gained the attention of opponents ranging from Eugene “Bull” Connor, the Chief of Birmingham’s Department of Public Safety, to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Despite numerous acts of intimidation by both organizations as well as groups such as the Ku Klux Klan, SNYC inspired a generation of African Americans, including Sallye Bell Davis (the mother of Angela Davis) and Julian Bond, Sr., to become political activists. In doing so, the Southern Negro Youth Congress laid the ground work for the civil rights movement of the 1950s.

Image: Members of the Southern Negro Youth Congress
Meet with Idaho Senator Glen Taylor, 1947
Image Ownership: Public Domain

Sources:
W.E.B. DuBois, “Behold The Land,” Freedomways 4 (Winter 1964); Patricia Sullivan, “Five Decades of Activism,” Journal of the Southern Regional Council 12:1(1990); Johnetta Gladys Richards, “The Southern Negro Youth Congress; A History, 1937-1949” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 1987).

Richards, J. (Ed.). (2016). Southern Negro Youth Congress (1937-1949). Retrieved from http://www.blackpast.org/aah/southern-n ... cu.dpufSee
Image
User avatar
ink
God's Fountain Pen
Posts: 2159
Joined: Mon Mar 21, 2016 8:22 pm

Re: BLACK History - Fuck a Month

Postby ink » Mon Feb 13, 2017 10:23 pm

word!!!
we are, what we allow to occupy us..





Image

Return to “Educate Yourself”

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest